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What is ‘Currency in Circulation’

Currency in circulation is a currency that is physically used to conduct transactions between consumers and businesses rather than stored in a bank, financial institution or central bank. Currency in circulation is part of the overall money supply, with a larger portion of the overall supply being stored in checking and savings accounts.

The total amount of paper currency, coins, and demand deposits that is held by consumers and businesses rather than by financial institutions, central banks, and the U.S. Treasury. Currency in circulation is thus the sum of currency held by the public, and is a component of a bank’s reserves. It is an important factor that the Federal Open Market Committee takes into account when setting the money supply, since a decline in the currency in circulation means that banks don’t have as many demand deposits in their reserve. This can mean that fewer loans could be extended to borrowers because the bank will have to make up for a decline in reserves.

BREAKING DOWN ‘Currency in Circulation’

Currency in circulation can be thought of as “currency in hand,” meaning that it is used to buy goods and services. Central banks pay attention to the amount of physical currency in circulation because it is present in the most liquid asset class. The more money that comes out of circulation and into longer-term investments, the less money is available to fund shorter-term consumption – a major component of GDP.

Ways Currency in Circulation Is Applied

There is more than $1.5 trillion in U.S. currency in circulation at any given time. New currency is printed by the Treasury Department and distributed by the Federal Reserve Banks to banks that order more currency. The amount of U.S. currency in circulation has increased over the years due to, in particular, demand from the international market. According to the Treasury Department, more than half of U.S. currency in circulation is found overseas rather than domestically. This demand from overseas stems in part from the relative stability of U.S. currency compared with nations that have more volatile currency valuations.

Even though electronic funds are accessible for many types of transactions, physical currency in circulation may be more preferable in some circumstances. After natural disasters, for instance, physical currency may be more prevalent as the means to pay for services that are needed immediately. Also, the nature of the disaster could make it difficult or impossible to access electronic funds. Power may be unavailable in widespread areas, for example, making physical currency the only method of conducting transactions. The delivery of physical currency puts funds immediately in the hands of those in need, rather than waiting for assets to transfer between institutions.

The majority of denominations of U.S. currency that are printed and remain in circulation include $1, $2, $5, $10, $20, $50 and $100. This is in addition to coin-based currency in circulation.

At different periods, the Treasury Department has discontinued production of, and the Federal Reserve Banks removed from circulation, certain denominations of currency. For example, after World War II currency in denominations of $500, $1,000, $5,000 and $10,000 stopped being printed, and in 1969, Federal Reserve Banks were ordered to remove that paper currency from circulation. Those denominations had been used for such purposes as making large transfers of funds.

As secure electronic means of transferring funds became increasingly used, the need for such large forms of currency was eliminated. Though such currency may still exist in circulation, Federal Reserve Banks actively work to remove them from circulation and then destroy the physical currency.

Current circulating banknotes
Image Value Dimensions Main colour Description
Obverse Reverse Obverse Reverse Watermark
India 1 R 2015, obverse.jpg India 1 R 2015, reverse.jpg ₹1 97 × 63 mm Green & Pink One-rupee coin Sagar Samrat oil rig Pillars of Ashoka
5 Rupees (Obverse).jpg 5 Rupees (Reverse).jpg ₹5 117 × 63 mm Green Mahatma Gandhi Tractor Mahatma Gandhi
India new 10 INR, MG series, 2018, obverse.jpg India new 10 INR, MG series, 2018, reverse.jpg ₹10 123 x 63 mm Chocolate brown Konark Sun Temple
India P-089A 20 Rupees Gandhi 2002, obverse.jpg India P-089A 20 Rupees Gandhi 2002, reverse.jpg ₹20 147 × 63 mm Red-orange Mount Harriet, Port Blair
India new 50 INR, MG series, 2018, obverse.jpg India new 50 INR, MG series, 2018, reverse.jpg ₹50 135 × 66 mm Aqua Hampi with Chariot
100 rs note obverse.jpg 100 rs note reverse.jpg ₹100 142×66 mm Lavender Rani ki Vav
India, 200 INR, 2018, obverse.jpg India, 200 INR, 2018, reverse.jpg ₹200 146 × 66 mm Bright yellow Sanchi Stupa
India new 500 INR, MG series, 2016, obverse.jpg India new 500 INR, MG series, 2016, reverse.jpg ₹500 150 × 66 mm Stone grey Red Fort
India new 2000 INR, MG series, 2016, obverse.jpg India new 2000 INR, MG series, 2016, reverse.jpg ₹2000 166 × 66 mm Magenta Mangalyaan


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