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Dangerous tactics: on recent Maoist attacks

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Recent attacks suggest that Maoists are focussing on greater militarisation
There has been an uptick(इजाफा) in attacks by Maoists, indicating( दर्शाता है) that their ability(क्षमता/सामर्थ्य) to strike remains strong. Last week, in two attacks(हमले) in Chhattisgarh, five persons were killed( मारे गए) in a blast(विस्फोट) in Dantewada district, and one BSF sub-inspector was killed in Kanker district. Maoists have also owned(स्वीकार करना) up responsibility(जिम्मेदारी) for the killing of TDP MLA Kidari Sarveswara Rao and his predecessor(पूर्ववर्ती) Siveri Soma in Araku valley in Andhra Pradesh in September. These attacks, however, come amid(के बीच) a series of military setbacks to the Maoists in the Andhra Pradesh-Odisha border regions(क्षेत्रों). Clearly, the government’s strategy(रणनीति/कार्यनीति) of using military force while earmarking(निर्धारण/जमा करना) funds for infrastructure and welfare(कल्याण) programmes in the districts most affected by left-wing extremism(चरमपंथ/अतिवाद) has weakened the Maoists. Paramilitary and police actions have resulted in the death of senior leaders, including(समेत) Cherukuri Rajkumar (‘Azad’) and Mallojula Koteswara Rao (‘Kishenji’). Welfare measures(उपायों), even if they have been implemented(लागू किया/कार्यान्वित ) haphazardly(संयोग से,/खतरनाक रूप ),have enabled outreach into tribal(आदिवासी/जनजातीय) areas where the state was hitherto(अब तक) absent. These actions have forced the Maoists to retreat(पीछे हटना/आश्रय) further into the forest areas of central and south-central India to use them as bases to launch attacks, seeking to invite state repression(दबाव/नियंत्रण) on tribal people and to get recruits(नियुक्त करना/नया सैनिक). The change of guard in the CPI (Maoist) leadership also suggests that it has moved towards further militarisation to secure its guerrilla forces’ influence(प्रभाव/प्रतिष्ठा). General secretary Nambala Kesava Rao (‘Basavraj’), who has replaced Muppala Lakshmana Rao (‘Ganapathy’), is alleged(कहा /थोपा हुआ) to have led attacks on security forces and killings.

The CPI (Maoist) has sought(मांगना/प्रयास करना) to project itself as a revolutionary(क्रांतिकारी) political movement led by peasants(किसानों/खेतिहर) and tribals, seeking to rebuild(पुनर्निर्माण करना) after the failures of the earlier Naxalite(नक्सली )movement(आंदोलन/प्रवृत्ति). After the merger of the People’s War Group and the Maoist(माओवादी) Communist Centre of India into the CPI (Maoist) in 2004, the outlawed party managed to consolidate(मजबूत/समेकित करना) its presence across a “Red Corridor” spanning central and north-central India, marked by rural(ग्रामीण) deprivation(वंचित/अभाव). Rather than focussing(केंद्रित करना) on socio-economic struggles(संघर्ष) to uplift(उत्थान/उन्नति) peasants and tribals in this region, the Maoists relied(भरोसा करना) on waging(चालू करना) a military battle(लड़ाई) against the state with the intention(इरादा) of capturing power through violent(हिंसक) means. This was largely due to a gross and mindless(दिमागी) misreading(गलतफहमी/ग़लत व्याख्या) of the nature of the Indian state and its democratic(लोकतांत्रिक ) institutions. These actions have resulted in the militarisation of these areas, repression of tribal people both by state actions such as the creation of the Salwa Judum — disbanded by judicial order — and Maoist authoritarianism. The change in leadership of the CPI (Maoist) and its recent actions suggest there is no end in sight to this insurgency(विद्रोह/बग़ावत) in the near term — a sad reality for tribals caught in the crossfire.

Important Vocabulary

1.Alleged(कहा /थोपा हुआ)
Synonyms: purported, so-called, stated, supposed, averred
Antonyms: certain, definite, sure

2.Indicating( दर्शाता है) 
Synonyms: announce, argue, demonstrate, express, hint
Antonyms: conceal, deny, hide, lose

3.Owned(स्वीकार करना)
Synonyms: purchased, bought, enjoyed, had, held
Antonyms: lost

Synonyms: ancestor, forebear, antecedent, forerunner, former
Antonyms: derivative, descendant, successor

Synonyms: bigotry, extremism, hatred, intolerance, zeal
Antonyms: apathy, calmness, dislike, doubt, fairness

6. Implemented(लागू किया/कार्यान्वित )
Synonyms: achieve, carry out, complete, enforce, realize
Antonyms: fail, forget, give up, ignore, lose

7.Haphazardly(संयोग से,/खतरनाक रूप )
Synonyms: aimlessly, carelessly, casually, randomly, accidentally

Synonyms: clout, consequence, control, domination, effect
Antonyms: beginning, cause, commencement, insignificance, origin

9.Recruits(नियुक्त करना). 
Synonyms: draftee, newcomer, rookie, sailor, soldier
Antonyms: expert, professional

10.Retreat(पीछे हटना/आश्रय)
Synonyms: evacuation, flight, withdrawal, ebb, retirement
Antonyms: advance, arrival, coming

Synonyms: laborer, sharecropper, boor, bumpkin, cropper

12.Consolidate(मजबूत/समेकित करना)
Synonyms: build up, cement, centralize, concentrate, develop
Antonyms: decrease, discourage, disperse, dissuade, hurt

13.Relied(भरोसा करना)
Synonyms: await, bank, bet, build, calculate
Antonyms: disbelieve, disregard, ignore, keep, straighten

14.Waging(चालू करना)
Synonyms: conduct, do, fulfill, make, practice
Antonyms: cease, destroy, fail, forget, halt

15.Misreading(गलतफहमी/ग़लत व्याख्या)
Synonyms: confuse, miscalculate, misconstrue, misinterpret, misjudge
Antonyms: understand, comprehend, succeed

Synonyms: dissent, insurrection, mutiny, revolt, revolution
Antonyms: calm, obedience, peace, orthodoxy, submission




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