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Parched or polluted: on India’s water crisis:

India’s water crisis is clear and present, with implications (उलझाव/फंसाव ) for the health of the entire population. According to the Composite (संयुक्त) Water Management Index developed by Niti Aayog, 70% of the water resources (संसाधन) are identified as polluted. This is based primarily on data supplied by States for calculating the index. If the water accessible (सुलभ/सुगम) to millions is contaminated (दूषित/मैला), the problem is infinitely (असीम रूप से/वशाल रूप से) worse (और भी बुरे प्रकार से)than that of availability (उपलब्धता). The system of ratings for States is based on their performance (प्रदर्शन/कार्य) in augmenting (बढ़ाने/बढ़ाना) water resources and watersheds (जलविभाजन), investing (निवेश करना) in infrastructure (आधारिक संरचना/भूमिकारूप व्यवस्था), providing rural (ग्रामीण) and urban (शहरी) drinking water, and encouraging efficient agricultural (कृषि) use. It presumes (मानना/सत्य समझना) that this ‘hall of fame’ approach will foster (पोषण/लालन-पालन करना)“competitive and cooperative (सहयोगी/सहकारी) federalism (संघवाद/संघीयता)”. What emerges (उभर रहे हैं/उभरना) from the early assessment (मूल्यांकन/निर्धारण) is that States such as Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab and Telangana have initiated (आरंभ करना) reforms (सुधार/फिर से बनाना) for judicious (उचित) water use, while populous (अधिक आबादी वाला) ones such as Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have failed to respond to the challenge. Tamil Nadu, which has a middling (मध्य/औसत दर्जे का) score, does well on augmentation (वृद्धि/बढ़ती) of water sources, but is abysmally (काफी/घोर रूप से) poor in ensuring (सुनिश्चित) sustainable (सतत/धारणीय) use for farming (खेती). The trends that the data reflect (प्रतिबिंबित/प्रतिबिंबित करना) of high to extreme (चरम/अति अधिक) stress (तनाव/दबाव) faced by 600 million people call for speedy reforms (सुधार/फिर से बनाना)).

Two areas that need urgent measures (उपायों/उपाय कार्यवाही) are augmentation (वृद्धि/बढ़ती) of watersheds (जलविभाजन) that can store more good water, for use in agriculture and to serve habitations (बस्तियों/घर), and strict pollution controlenforcement (प्रवर्तन/लागू करना). In this context (प्रसंग/संदर्भ), the Committee on Restructuring (पुनर्गठन) the Central Water Commission and the Central Ground Water Board, chaired by Mihir Shah, has called for a user-centric (उपयोगकर्ता केंद्रित)approach to water management, especially in agriculture. It advocates (समर्थक/हिमायत करना) decentralisation (विकेन्द्रीकरण)of irrigation (सिंचाई/सिंचन) commands, offering higher financial flows to well-performing States through a National Irrigation Management Fund. Clearly, awarding an index rank should help advance such schemes, making States feel the need to be competitive. Yet, such approaches may not resolve seemingly (मालूम होता है/मालूम होता है) intractable (असभ्य/अशिष्ट) inter-State river disputes (झगड़ा/विवाद/मतभेद). As the Cauvery issue has demonstrated (साबित), State governments would rather seek judicial (अदालती/न्यायिक) intervention (हस्तक्षेप/बीच में पड़ना) than be accused (अपराधी ठहराया हुआ/मुलजिम) of bartering (अदल-बदल करना/घाटे का सौदा करना) away the rights to a precious resource under a shared, cooperative framework (ढांचा/बनावट). Groundwater extraction patterns need to be better understood through robust (मजबूत/ठोस) data collection; less than 5% of about 12 million wells are now under study. Steady (नियमित/संतुलित) urbanisation (शहरीकरण) calls for a new management paradigm (उदाहरण/मिसाल), augmenting sources of clean drinking water supply and treatment technologies that will encourage reuse. Pollution can be curbed (को रोका/नियंत्रण करना) by levying (उठाना/एकत्र करना) suitable costs. These forward-looking changes would need revamped (पुर्नोत्थान) national and State institutions, and updated laws. A legal mandate will work better than just competition and cooperation; it would make governments accountable (उत्तरदायी/लेखादेय/जवाबदार).

Important vocabulary

1.implications (उलझाव/फंसाव )

Synonyms: conclusion,indication,ramification,significance,assumption,incrimination

Antonyms: measurement,proof,reality,truth

2.Composite (संयुक्त)

Synonyms: complex,compound,conglomerate,blended,melded,synthesized

Antonyms: homogeneous,simple,unblended,uncombined,uniform,unmixed

3.contaminated (दूषित/मैला)

Synonyms: corrupt,harm,infect,injure,poison,pollute

Antonyms: aid,clean,improve,purify,clear,cure,heal,sterilize

4.foster (पोषण/लालन-पालन करना)

Synonyms: advance,back,encourage,feed,,harbor,nurse,nurture,serve,stimulate

Antonyms: block,cease,halt,hinder,ignore,impede,neglect,starve,stop,condemn

5.abysmally (काफी/घोर रूप से)

Synonyms: complete,deep,endless,extreme,incalculable,infinite,unending,unfathomable

Antonyms: low

6.bartering (अदल-बदल करना/घाटे का सौदा करना)

Synonyms: haggle,bargain,exchange,swap,trade,traffic,truck,

Antonyms: keep

7.intractable (असभ्य/अशिष्ट)

Synonyms: incurable,intransigent,stubborn,uncompromising,unmanageable

Antonyms: willing,manageable

8.curbed (को रोका/नियंत्रण करना)

Synonyms: control,impede,restrain,suppress,tame,abstain

Antonyms: advance,aid,allow,facilitate,release,loose

9.paradigm (उदाहरण/मिसाल)

Synonyms: archetype,chart,criterion,model,pattern,prototype,sample

Antonyms: descendant

10.robust (मजबूत/ठोस)

Synonyms: booming,powerful,tough,hardy,built

Antonyms: fragile,impotent,incapable,ineffective,small,unstable,weak



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