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Saving rivers

As a first step, the capacity of treatment plants along all rivers must be urgently expanded
The finding of the Central Pollution Control Board that the number of critically(गंभीर रूप से) polluted(प्रदूषित) segments(खंड/)of India’s rivers has risen to 351 from 302 two years ago is a strong indictment(अभियोग/आरोप/कलंक) of the departments responsible for environmental(पर्यावरण) protection(संरक्षण।). The data show that the plethora(अतिरिक्‍त प्रवाह/अधिकता) of laws enacted(अधिनियमित/लागू) to regulate waste management and protect water quality are simply not working. The study also underscores(जांच करना/बल देना) the failure of many national programmes run by the Centre for river conservation(सुरक्षा
/संरक्षण, preservation(परिरक्षण/बचाव) of wetlands(झीलों), and water quality monitoring(निगरानी/नियंत्रण). Tests of Ganga water indicate(प्रकट करना/संकेत करना) it has fared better in Uttar Pradesh; but then, the clean-up plan for the river has received dedicated(समर्पित) Central funding of ₹3,696 crore over three and a half years, compared to ₹351 crore given to 14 States to conserve(सुरक्षित रखना/बनाए रखना) 32 rivers. The failed efforts to control pollution are all too evident(प्रत्यक्ष/जाहिर) in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Assam, which account for a third of the degraded(अपरिवर्तित ) river segments. Their problems are worsened by the poor infrastructure(आधारिक संरचना) available in a large number of cities and towns located near rivers. It is notable that these results come from a CPCB audit that was carried out at the instance(उदाहरण) of the National Green Tribunal. Ideally, the Board should be reporting more frequently on pollution, and carrying out intensive(गहन/तीव्र) measures through State Pollution Control Boards to eliminate(हटाना) pollutants, starting with sewage and industrial effluents.

Managing sewage(मैला/गंदे नाले) requires steady funding of treatment plants for all urban(शहरी/नगरीय)agglomerations(समुदाय) that discharge their waste into rivers, and also reliable(विश्वसनीय/भरोसेमंद) power supply. The deficit between sewerage available and the volume generated along the polluted stretches(फैलाव/हिस्सों) was estimated(अनुमानित)by the CPCB last year at 13,196 million litres a day. Rapid(शीघ्र/तीव्र) urbanisation is widening the gap, since infrastructure planning is not keeping pace with growth in housing. Moreover, with low priority(प्राथमिकता) accorded to enforcement of laws by the SPCBs and Pollution Control Committees — something that is unlikely to change quickly — the immediate plan should be to expand the supply of treatment plants. Sustained(निरंतर) civil society pressure on governments is vital(महत्वपूर्ण/जीवनी का) to ensure that this is done in a time-bound manner. On the industrial side, the plan to bring all liquid effluent(प्रवाह/बहाव)discharge from textile units and tanneries to zero has to be pursued vigorously, giving industries the assistance to help them choose the best technologies for the recovery of waste water for reuse. These measures are urgently needed to revive(पुनर्जीवित) India’s many dying rivers, protect its agriculture, and prevent serious harm to public health from contaminated(दूषित) water. A 2013 World Bank study estimated that environmental degradation( दुर्दशा/गिरावट) is costing India at least $80 billion a year, of which losses to rivers form a significant part. This is indeed a problem of catastrophic(प्रलयंकर/विपत्तिपूर्ण) dimensions(परिमाण/विस्तार) .


Important Vocabulary

1.Plethora(अतिरिक्‍त प्रवाह/अधिकता
Synonyms: deluge, glut, overabundance, plenty, profusion
Antonyms: lack, need, scarcity, want, few

Synonyms: care, conservancy, conservation, safeguarding, safety
Antonyms: danger, neglect, endangerment, harm, hurt

3.Degraded(अपरिवर्तित )
Synonyms: debased, depraved, vulgarized

4.Conserve(सुरक्षित रखना/बनाए रखना)
Synonyms: hoard, maintain, preserve, safeguard, sustain
Antonyms: hurt, ignore, let go, neglect, release

Synonyms: accelerated, all-out, comprehensive, demanding, in-depth
Antonyms: superficial, incomplete, in comprehensive, surface

Synonyms: decent, decisive, dependable, good, honest
Antonyms: bad, broken, corrupt, dishonest, evil

Synonyms: area, bridge, distance, length, radius
Antonyms: stagnation

Synonyms: cluster, heap, jumble, load, mass

Synonyms: discharge, drainage, effluence, effluent, effluvium

Synonyms: calamitous, cataclysmic, disastrous, fatal, ruinous
Antonyms: advantageous, blessed, fortunate, happy, successful




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