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The big squeeze: on U.S.-Iran relationship

With sanctions taking a political toll in Iran, allies should facilitate talks with the U.S.
Iran is reeling under the impact(प्रभाव) of reimposed(पुनर्निर्मित/वापस लाना ) sanctions(प्रतिबंधों/मंजुर) after the U.S. walked out of the nuclear deal in May. But the crisis(संकट) is exposing(उजागर/प्रकट करना) the strains(तनाव/उपभेदों) between the moderate(मध्यम) and hardline sections within the Islamic Republic’s leadership. Masoud Karbasian, who was removed as Finance Minister on Sunday, is the latest high-profile political casualty(दुर्घटना/हताहत) in Iran’s attempts(प्रयास/आज़माना) to counter the effects of a weakening currency and crippling U.S. sanctions. The rial has lost over 50% of its value this year, pushing up prices and compelling(आकर्षक/सम्मोहक ) consumers to convert their savings into gold and other assets(संपत्ति।). With mounting public anger over high inflation(मुद्रास्फीति) and alleged(कथित/थोपा हुआ) corruption, any additional(अतिरिक्त)squeeze(दबाव/निचोड़) could worsen domestic tensions. In a prelude(भूमिका/प्रस्तावना) to Mr. Karbasian’s sacking(बर्खास्त),through impeachment(दोषारोपण/निंदा) by parliament, President Hassan Rouhani had in July dropped Valiollah Seif as the central bank governor, for incompetence(अक्षमता/असमर्थता) in handling the fallout(विवाद/झगड़ना) from the currency crisis. Thanks to the relief from punitive(दंडनीय) sanctions after the nuclear deal had taken effect, Tehran managed to double its oil exports, climb out of a deep(गहरी /गंभीर) recession(मंदी/निकासी) and contain inflation. With the return of economic sanctions, Iran has been prohibited(रोक किया हुआ/निषिद्ध) from using the U.S. currency, and faces a bar on trade in cars, metals and minerals. In an effort to mitigate(कम करना) their impact, Abdolnaser Hemmati, the new central bank chief, has announced a relaxation(रियायत/छूट) of foreign exchange rules, creating access to subsidised hard money for purchase of essential(आवश्यक/अनिवार्य) commodities(माल/उत्पाद). He also declared the reopening of currency markets. But more difficult times loom, with the next round of sanctions that kick in by November aimed at impeding(बाधा डालना/रोकना) Iran’s energy exports and financial dealings with its central bank.

The global community must weigh in to ease U.S.-Iran tensions. There is little appetite in the U.S. for a direct military confrontation; Iran too is under no illusion(भ्रम) about its military capability(क्षमता/सामर्थ्य). But there remains the risk of an Iranian blockade on the Strait of Hormuz, the passage for about a third of global seaborne oil shipments. It would disrupt supplies and cause panic in global markets. Despite(बावजूद) the hawkish tone adopted by his National Security Adviser John Bolton, U.S. President Donald Trump has offered to hold unconditional talks. Rather than prejudge any possible outcome that could result from engaging an unpredictable(मनमौजी/ अप्रत्याशित ) Mr. Trump, the Iranian leadership should respond favourably(कृपापूर्वक) to the idea. With much to lose from Iran’s international isolation(अलग करना/पृथक्रकरण), the European Union should exert diplomatic pressure to renew talks. A fresh nuclear agreement appears to be a remote possibility at this stage. Conversely(विपरीततः/उल्टे), even small relief from economic sanctions would bring some leverage at home for the beleaguered(परेशान/धेरा डालना) Mr. Rouhani. Recent protests have reflected(प्रतिबिंबित) a yearning for progress and greater freedom among ordinary(सामान्य) Iranians. The centrist President should help advance such an agenda.

Important vocabulary

Synonyms: congestion, crunch, restraint, clasp, clutch
Antonyms: powerlessness, release, weakness, opening

2.Beleaguered(परेशान/धेरा डालना) 
Synonyms: annoy, bedevil, beset, plague, badger
Antonyms: aid, make happy, please, assist, help

Synonyms: about-face, again, backwards, contra, contrarily

4.Prohibited(रोक किया हुआ/निषिद्ध)
Synonyms: banned, barred, contraband, illegal, illicit
Antonyms: allowed, good, lawful, legal, legitimate

5.Impeding(बाधा डालना/रोकना)
Synonyms: block, curb, cut off, delay, deter
Antonyms:advance, aid, allow, assist, encourage

Synonyms:introduction, prologue, commencement, exordium, foreword
Antonyms: completion, conclusion, end, ending, epilogue

Synonyms:allegation, arraignment, bill, charge, citation
Antonyms:praise, absolution, acquittal, exoneration

8.Compelling(आकर्षक/सम्मोहक ) 
Synonyms: fascinating, constraining, coercive, compulsory, forcible
Antonyms: discretional, elective, optional

Synonyms: discharge, dismiss, expel, fire, terminate
Antonyms: employ, engage, hire, hold, keep

Synonyms: blow, calamity, catastrophe, disaster, mishap
Antonyms: blessing, good fortune, good luck, happiness, miracle

11. Illusion
Synonyms: , confusion, deception, delusion, fantasy, hallucination
Antonyms:, fact, reality, truth, being, certainty




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