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The nature and scope of economics are related to the study of wealth or human behaviour or of scarce resources. The scope is very wide and includes the subject matter of economics whether economics is a science or an art or whether it is positive or normative science.
Subject Matter of Economics
The subject matter of economics is the study of grounds of material interests or as the science of wealth. Men who are sensible beings and take action under the active social, legal and institutional group. It eliminates the performance, manners of socially objectionable and uncharacteristic persons like misers, thieves etc. It consists of the study of the exertion of consumption, production, exchange and distribution of wealth, as well as the fortitude of the values of goods and services the amount of employment and the determinants of fiscal development. Further it comprises the study of grounds of poverty, unemployment, under employment, inflation etc. and actions for their elimination.
Economics as a Science
Economics is a science since its laws have widespread soundness such as the law of diminishing returns, the law of diminishing marginal utility, the law of demand etc. It is called as a science since its self-remedial nature. It goes on amendments in the dawn of new specifics based on interpretations. Hence Economics is a science like any other science that has its own generalisations, theories or laws of economics which traces out a casual relationship between two or more phenomena.
Economics as an Art
The practical application of scientific techniques is the Art of Economics. Some economists consider economics as a science and art while few others as science and applied science. It is considered as newest of science and oldest of arts and the queen of all the social sciences.
Economics as a Positive Science
As per the nineteenth century experts, economics is a positive science. Since it seeks to explain what has actually happened but not what is ought to happen. According to J.N.Keynes, Positive science is defined as”A body of systematised knowledge concerning what ought to be and concerned with the ideal as distinguished from the actual.”
With contrast to the Positive Science, Normative Science deals with the”what is ought to happen” cases. That is predictions of future economic development with regards to the present conditions are discussed in this. The postulations on which economic laws, theories or principles are based relate to man and his problems. If we attempt to test and forecast fiscal actions on their basis the subjectivity elements always penetrates. Therefore, the laws of economics are at best propensities.