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Directions for Questions 1 to 15 : The last line of each paragraph has been ommitted. Read the paragraph and select the alternative which would complete the paragraph most appropriately.

1. Particularly today, when so many difficult and complex problems face the human species, the development of broad———————
a. And powerful shoulders are necessary.
b. Plans of action are not possible.
c. Moral values are required.
d. And powerful thinking is desperately needed.

2. In the European Community countries there has been talk of an energy tax to raise funds———————
a. By burdening the rich who can afford higher taxes.
b. To penalize heavy users of energy.
c. By raising the price of energy-intensive implements.
d. To search for alternative sources of energy.

3. “Look before you leap” reflects an attitude expressed in such a saying as———————
a. ‘Forewarned is forearmed.’
b. ‘A stitch in time saves nine.’ c. ‘No risk no gain.’
d. ‘Fools rush where the angels fear to tread.’

4. This is the ancient kingdom of Sumeria and you are its venerated ruler. The fate of Sumeria’ economy and of your royal subjects———————
a. Is written in their horoscopes.
b. Is as unknown as the name of your kingdom.
c. Is entirely in your hands.
d. Is allocated according to their needs.

5. Furthermore, to be radical means to be ready and willing to break with the predominant cultural, political and social beliefs and values in order to ———————
a. Investigate the essential realities that they conceal.
b. Investigate the root cause of malaise in a society.
c. Shape a new economic order.
d. Re-construct the system in terms of new realities.

6. Entrepreneurs are never satisfied with the status quo, they are intent on shaping the future, rather than being shaped by it. As one Chief Executive once said ———————
a. “The future is the sum total of actions in the present and past.”
b. “If you are not alert, before you realize it the future is on you.”
c. “I do not want our competitors making decisions for us.”
d. “It is a sound business policy to anticipate change than being swamped by it.”

7. Most people at their first consultation take a furtive look at the surgeon’s hands in the hope of reassurance. Prospective patients look for delicacy, sensitivity, steadiness, perhaps unblemished pallor. On this basis, Henry Perowne loses a number of cases each year. Generally, he knows it’s about to happen before the patient does: the downward glance repeated, the prepared questions beginning to falter, the overemphatic thanks during the retreat to the door.———————
a. Other people do not communicate due to their poor observation.
b. Other patients don’t like what they see but are ignorant of their right to go elsewhere.
c. But Perowne himself is not concerned.
d. But others will take their place, he thought.
e. These hands are steady enough, but they are large.

8. Trade protectionism, disguised as concern for the climate, is raising its head. Citing competitive-ness concerns, powerful industrialized countries are holding out threats of a levy on imports of energy intensive products from developing countries that refuse to accept their demands. The actual source of protectionist sentiment in the OECD countries is, of course, their current lack luster economic performance, combined with the challenges posed by the rapid economic rise of China and India – in that order.———————
a. Climate change is evoked to bring trade protectionism through the back door.
b. OECD countries are taking refuge in climate change issues to erect trade barriers against these two countries.
c. Climate change concerns have come as a convenient stick to beat the rising trade power of China and India.
d. Defenders of the global economic status quo are posing as climate change
champions.
e. Today’s climate change champions are the perpetrators of global economic inequity.

9. Mattancherry is Indian Jewry’s most famous settlement. Its pretty streets of pastel coloured houses, connected by first-floor passages and home to the last twelve saree-and-sarong-wearing, white skinned Indian Jews are visited by thousands of tourists each year. Its synagogue, built in 1568, with a floor of blue-and-white Chinese tiles, a carpet given by Haile Selassie and the frosty Yaheh selling tickets at the door, stands as an image of religious tolerance.———————
a. Mattancherry represents, therefore, the perfect picture of peaceful co-existence.
b. India’s Jews have almost never suffered discrimination, except for European colonizers and each other.
c. Jews in India were always tolerant.
d. Religious tolerance has always been only a façade and nothing more.
e. The pretty pastel streets are, thus, very popular with the tourists.

10. Given the cultural and intellectual interconnections, the question of what is ‘Western’ and what is ‘Eastern’ (or ‘Indian’) is often hard to decide, and the issue can be discussed only in more dialectical terms. The diagnosis of a thought as ‘purely Western’ or ‘purely Indian’ can be very illusory.
a. Thoughts are not the kind of things that can be easily categorized.———————
b. Though ‘Occidentalism’ and ‘orientalism’ as dichotomous concepts have found many adherents.
c. ‘East is East and West is West’ has been a discredited notion for a long time now.
d. Compartmentalizing thoughts is often desirable.
e. The origin of a thought is not the kind of thing to which ‘purity’ happens easily.

11. Characters are also part of deep structure. Characters tie events in a story together and provide a thread of continuity and meaning. Stories can be about individuals, groups, projects, or whole organizations, so from an organizational studies perspective, the focal actor(s) determine the level and unit of analysis used in a study. Stories of mergers and acquisitions, for example, are commonplace. In these stories whole organizations are personified as actors. But these macro- level stories usually are not told from the perspective of the macro-level participants, because whole organizations cannot narrate their experiences in the first person———————
a. More generally, data concerning the identities and relationships of the characters in the story are required, if one is to understand role structure and social networks in which that process is embedded.
b. Personification of a whole organization abstracts away from the particular actors and from traditional notions of level of analysis.
c. The personification of a whole organization is important because stories differ depending on who is enacting various events.
d. Every story is told from a particular point of view, with a particular narrative voice, which is not regarded as part of the deep structure.
e. The personification of a whole organization is a textual device we use to make macro-level theories more comprehensible.

12. Nevertheless, photographs still retain some of the magical allure that the earliest daguerreotypes inspired. As objects, our photographs have changed; they have become physically flimsier as they have become more technologically sophisticated. Daguerre produced pictures on copper plates; today many of our photographs never become tangible things, but instead remain filed away on computers and cameras, part of the digital ether that envelops the modern world. At the same time, our patience for the creation of images has also eroded. Children today are used to being tracked from birth by digital cameras and video recorders and they expect to see the results of their poses and performances instantly. The space between life as it is being lived and life as it is being displayed shrinks to a mere second.———————
a. Yet, despite these technical developments, photographs still remain powerful because they are reminders of the people and things we care about.
b. Images, after all, are surrogates carried into battle by a soldier or by a traveller on holiday.
c. Photographs, be they digital or traditional, exist to remind us of the absent, the beloved, and the dead.
d. In the new era of the digital image, the images also have a greater potential for fostering falsehood and trickery, perpetuating fictions that seem so real we cannot tell the difference.
e. Anyway, human nature being what it is, little time has passed after photography’s invention became means of living life through images.

13. Mma Ramotswe had a detective agency in Africa, at the foot of Kgale Hill. These were its assets: a tiny white van, two desks, two chairs, a telephone, and an old typewriter. Then there was a teapot, in which Mma Ramotswe – the only private lady detective in Botswana – brewed redbush tea. And three mugs – one for herself, one for her secretary, and one for the client. What else does a detective agency really need? Detective agencies rely on human intuition and intelligence, both of which Mma Ramotswe had in abundance.———————
a. But there was also the view, which again would appear on no inventory.
b. No inventory would ever include those, of course.
c. She had an intelligent secretary too.
d. She was a good detective and a good woman.
e. What she lacked in possessions was more than made up by a natural shrewdness.

14. Relations between the factory and the dealer are distant and usually strained as the factory tries to force cars on the dealers to smooth out production. Relations between the dealer and the customer are equally strained because dealers continuously adjust prices — make deals — to adjust demand with supply while maximizing profits. This becomes a system marked by a lack of long-term commitment on either side, which maximizes feelings of mistrust. In order to maximize their bargaining positions, everyone holds back information — the dealer about the product and the consumer about his true desires———————
a. As a result, ‘deal making’ becomes rampant, without concern for customer satisfaction.
b. As a result, inefficiencies creep into the supply chain.
c. As a result, everyone treats the other as an adversary, rather than as an ally.
d. As a result, fundamental innovations are becoming scarce in the automobile industry.
e. As a result, everyone loses in the long run.

15. We can usefully think of theoretical models as maps, which help us navigate unfamiliar territory. The most accurate map that it is possible to construct would be of no practical use whatsoever, for it would be an exact replica, on exactly the same scale, of the place where we were. Good maps pull out the most important features and throw away a huge amount of much less valuable information. Of course, maps can be bad as well as good — witness the attempts by medieval Europe to produce a map of the world. In the same way, a bad theory, no matter how impressive it may seem in principle, does little or nothing to help us understand a problem———————
a. But good theories, just like good maps, are invaluable, even if they are simplified.
b. But good theories, just like good maps, will never represent unfamiliar concepts in detail.
c. But good theories, just like good maps, need to balance detail and feasibility of representation.
d. But good theories, just like good maps, are accurate only at a certain level of abstraction.
e. But good theories, just like good maps, are useful in the hands of a user who knows their limitations.

Solution

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