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Carbon is the backbone of life on Earth. We are made of carbon, we eat carbon, and our civilizations—our economies, our homes, our means of transport—are built on carbon. We need carbon, but that need is also entwined with one of the most serious problems facing us today: global climate change.

Forged in the heart of aging stars, carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the Universe. Most of Earth’s carbon—about 65,500 billion metric tons—is stored in rocks. The rest is in the ocean, atmosphere, plants, soil, and fossil fuels.

Carbon flows between each reservoir in an exchange called the carbon cycle, which has slow and fast components. Any change in the cycle that shifts carbon out of one reservoir puts more carbon in the other reservoirs. Changes that put carbon gases into the atmosphere result in warmer temperatures on Earth.

Carbon Cycle on Land

Carbon in the atmosphere is present in the form of carbon dioxide. Carbon enters the atmosphere through natural processes such as respiration and industrial applications such as burning fossil fuels. The process of photosynthesis involves the absorption of CO2 by plants to produce carbohydrates. The equation is as follows:

CO+ H2O + energy  CH2O +O2

Carbon compounds are passed along the food chain from the producers to consumers. The majority of the carbon exists in the body in the form of carbon dioxide through respiration. The role of decomposers is to eat the dead organism and return the carbon from their body back into the atmosphere. The equation for this process is:

CH2O +O CO+ H2O

Oceanic Carbon Cycle

This is essentially a carbon cycle but in the sea. Ecologically, oceans take in more carbon than it gives out. Hence, it is called a “carbon sink.” Marine animals convert carbon to calcium carbonate and this forms the raw building materials require to create hard shells, similar to the ones found in clams and oysters.

When organisms with calcium carbonate shells die, their body decomposes, leaving behind their hard shells. These accumulate on the seafloor and are eventually broken down by the waves and compacted under enormous pressure, forming limestone.

When these limestone rocks are exposed to air, they get weathered and the carbon is released back into the atmosphere as carbon dioxide.

Importance of Carbon Cycle

Even though carbon dioxide is found in small traces in the atmosphere, it plays a vital role in balancing the energy and traps the long-wave radiations from the sun. Therefore, it acts like a blanket over the planet. If the carbon cycle is disturbed it will result in serious consequences such as climatic changes and global warming.

Carbon is an integral component of every life form on earth. From proteins and lipids to even our DNA. Furthermore, all known life on earth is based on carbon. Hence, the carbon cycle, along with the nitrogen cycle and oxygen cycle, plays a vital role in the existence of life on earth.

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