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General Awareness play a vital role in all  Examination. we can expect  Questions from different Topics.In Banking and other competitive exams like RRB, CDS, LIC AO, RBI, SSC, UPSC, FCI, UIIC, OICL, SBI Clerks and PO the questions on Hydrosphere are being asked. Here we have given Geography study notes on Hydrosphere for SSC CGL Examinations 2019-20 & other examination. Candidates those who are all preparing for the Examination can use this study material.


A hydrosphere is the total amount of water on a planet. The hydrosphere includes water that is on the surface of the planet, underground, and in the air. A planet’s hydrosphere can be liquid, vapor, or ice.

On Earth, liquid water exists on the surface in the form of oceans, lakes and rivers. It also exists below ground—as groundwater, in wells and aquifers. Water vapor is most visible as clouds and fog.

The frozen part of Earth’s hydrosphere is made of ice: glaciers, ice caps and icebergs. The frozen part of the hydrosphere has its own name, the cryosphere.

Importance of Liquid Water

Water is in the air, on the land, between the rocks, and in every living thing. Water, in its purest form, is the compound H2O. There are two hydrogen (H) atoms bonded to one oxygen (O) atom. Generally, you won’t find pure water. There are usually other compounds, ions, or particles mixed with water. While water may move and carry other substances with it,  small water molecules are the things that make life on Earth possible.

Hydrological cycle

The hydrological cycle transfers water from one state or reservoir to another. Reservoirs include atmospheric moisture including snow, rain and clouds, streams, oceans, rivers lakes, groundwater, subterranean aquifers, polar icecaps and saturated soil.


Solar energy is the source of heat and light and gravity causes the transfer from one state to another over periods from hours to thousands of years. Most evaporation comes from the oceans and is returned to the earth as snow or rain.

Importance of the hydrosphere 

It is so easy sometimes to take our hydrosphere for granted and we seldom take the time to really think about the role that this part of the planet plays in keeping us alive. Below are just some of the important functions of water in the hydrosphere:

  • Water is a part of living cells Each cell in a living organism is made up of almost 75%75% water, and this allows the cell to function normally. In fact, most of the chemical reactions that occur in life, involve substances that are dissolved in water. Without water, cells would not be able to carry out their normal functions and life could not exist.
  • Water provides a habitat The hydrosphere provides an important place for many animals and plants to live. Many gases (e.g. CO2CO2O2O2), nutrients e.g. nitrate (NO3NO3−), nitrite (NO2NO2−) and ammonium (NH+4NH4+) ions, as well as other ions (e.g. Mg2+Mg2+ and Ca2+Ca2+) are dissolved in water. The presence of these substances is critical for life to exist in water.
  • Regulating climate One of water’s unique characteristics is its high specific heat. This means that water takes a long time to heat up and also a long time to cool down. This is important in helping to regulate temperatures on earth so that they stay within a range that is acceptable for life to exist. Ocean currents also help to disperse heat.
  • Human needs Humans use water in a number of ways. Drinking water is obviously very important, but water is also used domestically (e.g. washing and cleaning) and in industry. Water can also be used to generate electricity through hydropower.



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