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Paragraph Completion & Fillers Tricks & Tips
Paragraph Completion (PC) has been a regular feature of papers . Before we attempt the PC questions, we must try to understand what the questions test. PCs test the candidate’s thought process, his ability to conclude, summarize, continue or keep track of an idea or an argument. Customer Ideas are great way to learn tricks for paragraph fillers.
Let’s look at the question direction of PC questions. It says: Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
The question asks us to complete the paragraph in the most appropriate way, not in the most logical way. Students preparing for Exams must have come across similar questions in which the questions ask the test taker to logically complete the passage.
Since what is appropriate is a subjective view, test takers often make a choice based on their intuition, leaving room for uncertainty. Often the accuracy percentage is around 50%.
The last line of a paragraph usually continues a discussion/ description or concludes an argument. In short, there is either continuity or a conclusion
So, what should the last line have and not have? Let’s see:
If the last line is a conclusion, then:
- The last line should bring the paragraph to a smooth end; it should not be abrupt.
- The conclusion should be logically derivable from the premises already stated or from evidences already cited and should reflect the correct line of reasoning.
- The conclusion should focus on the main idea of the passage.
- The conclusion must be relevant to the key issues discussed in the passage.
If the last line is a continuation of an idea, then:
- The last line must not have a new element not at all related to the ideas discussed earlier.
- The last line should have structure and order very similar to the preceding ideas.
- The logical arrangement of the last line should be such that it gives a logical flow to the entire paragraph.
- The idea in the last line should reflect a smooth transition from the idea in the preceding lines.
Above all, the candidate must ensure that the tone of the last line is consistent with the tone of the entire paragraph.
Let’s take a simple example from CAT 2006.
Relations between the factory and the dealer are distant and usually strained as the factory tries to force cars on the dealers to smooth out production. Relations between the dealer and the customer are equally strained because dealers continuously adjust prices—make deals—to adjust demand with supply while maximizing profits. This becomes a system marked by a lack of long-term commitment on either side, which maximizes feelings of mistrust. In order to maximize their bargaining positions, everyone holds back information—the dealer about the product and the consumer about his true desires. _________________
- As a result, ‘deal making’ becomes rampant, without concern for customer satisfaction.
- As a result, inefficiencies creep into the supply chain.
- As a result, everyone treats the other as an adversary, rather than as an ally.
- As a result, fundamental innovations are becoming scarce in the automobile industry.
- As a result, everyone loses in the long run.
From the options, we come to know that the question wants us to logically conclude the paragraph. So, the last line is a conclusion, not a continuation.
Before we take the options, we must find out the central argument of the passage. What is the passage all about? The passage discusses the relations between three entities, and that relation is strained. Now let’s take the options one at a time:
Option A: If the relations are strained, then how can deal-making become rampant?
Option B: The author is discussing strained relations; we must ask ‘how can strained relations cause inefficiencies in the supply chain?’ We just don’t have strong evidences to arrive at such a conclusion.
Option C: Seems a good choice, but only at first glance. If the relations between the manufacturer and the distributor are not good, then they both will lose in the long run because they both depend on each other. And, how can the customer become an adversary of the manufacturer? The customer is competing neither with the manufacturer nor with the distributor. In short, option C is too far-fetched.
Option D: The issues with option D are very similar to those of option B. The logic of ‘strained relations vs innovations’ must be convincing. What has good or strained relations to do with innovations? The option does not sound convincing.
Option E: Sees perfect. Carefully read the last line of the passage: In order to maximize their bargaining positions, everyone holds back information—the dealer about the product and the consumer about his true desires. To maximize their bargaining positions, they are holding back information; as a result, they all will lose in the long run. The option is logical and sensible; it is not far-fetched or irrelevant like the others.
Sentence Fillers|Paragraph completition
Paragraph completion is same as fillers or sentence fillers. To be precise, Paragraph completion is just an extended form of fillers. Hence, the technique to solve also is not much different. Here, the only difference is that the option has to fit in the paragraph as the sentence. Initiating statement, a connecting statement, or a concluding statement.
Initiating statement- You have to figure out the starting statement. This should be an introducing statement.
Connecting statement- These statements should work like connectors. They conjoin the introducing statement and concluding statement.
Concluding statement- There is ample scope to confuse you. Thus, every option is relevant to the theme of the paragraph. Any option that agrees with (by supporting, contradicting or explaining) any other sentence, then the last one, of the paragraph, should be placed just next to that sentence. Since you have to find the last sentence, you should select only that option which extends the idea given in the last sentence of the paragraph.
Let’s take a look at these individual elements in detail, and you shall find this section a cakewalk for sure. Para Completion questions can help you to boost your sectional and overall test score.
FIVE important Tips and Tricks to solve New Pattern Paragraph Completion Questions :
(1) Purview of the Passage
Quickly but carefully read the passage and figure out the scope, theme, tone and logical flow of the passage. Try to figure out what the paragraph is all about and what are its limits. So anything that falls outside the purview of the passage cannot be a part of the passage and should be eliminated in the first go.
Read the following lines carefully, and decide what the scope of the passage is?
In my own constituency, in April, which is a hot month, we had hailstorms of the size of a tennis ball, which destroyed the entire wheat crop in the Tarai. We had snow in places where snow had never been. We had snow late, we had flowering late and we lost a large number of crops due to flooding. This is going to increase year after year.
Here the scope of the passage would be the changing weather conditions within a particular area, however, it cannot be generalized.
(2) Gist of the Passage
Put Yourself into the shoes of the author and think like the author of the passage. Read the paragraph carefully and focus on the hints and keywords and try to figure out the essence of the passage. Try to rephrase the passage in your mind in simpler words, and ask yourself what the author is trying to convey. Hold on with the idea and eliminate the irrelevant choices.
Read the following lines and guess the theme of the passage:
We must forever conduct our struggle on the high plane of dignity and discipline. We must not allow our creative protest to degenerate into physical violence. Again and again, we must rise to the majestic heights of meeting physical force with soul force.
Here, the last line makes the theme clear; the author wants the people to uphold their sense of righteousness and integrity even in the midst of bitter struggle.
(3) Tone of the Passage
Tone represents the predominant emotion or mood of the author towards the topic. This can be done by paying attention to the adjectives used in the passage. Passages are normally the author’s reaction to some issue. Understanding the tone of the passage can help you to narrow down to the right choice.
Broadly, the tone can be classified as subjective or objective in nature. An objective tone is used when the author does not choose any side and remains a neutral and detached observer. Whereas a subjective tone reflects the emotion displayed by the author. Some of the common tones used by author can be Laudatory, Caustic, Dogmatic, Humorous, Sarcastic understand the tone of the passage.
Read the following example passage and identify the tone of the passage:
AMERICAN students are enrolling in college in record numbers, but they’re also dropping out in droves. Barely half of those who start four-year colleges, and only a third of community college students, graduate. That’s one of the worst records among developed nations, and it’s a substantial drain on the economy. The American Institutes for Research estimates the cost of those dropouts, measured in lost earnings and taxes, at $4.5 billion. Incalculable are the lost opportunities for social mobility and the stillborn professional careers.
Clearly, the passage bears a negative tone. The author uses expressions like ‘dropping in droves’, ‘drain on the economy’ and finally ‘incalculable are the lost opportunities’, which clearly shows that the author displays a strong sense of disapproval for the flip side of the American education system.
(4) Direction of the Passage
Read the passage gingerly, keeping an eye on the transitions and events and the logical connection behind them. If you mess up, you may make a blunder. So, focus on key ideas and transition phrases used in the passage. One must be able to identify the thread of thought running through the paragraph. The flow of ideas in the passage should be maintained. Never pick an option which breaks or suddenly changes the flow to some other direction.
Remember, the last thought or idea in the paragraph has to be taken forward. Therefore, continuity is an important thing to be kept in mind in the process of arriving at the right answer.
(5) Elimination of irrelevant the Choices
It is important to master the art of eliminating the irrelevant choices. Any option that is out of the purview of the argument or contradictory to the theme should be straightaway eliminated. Find out and eliminate the options which talk about things that are not mentioned in the paragraph. The correct option will be the one which relates itself to the core information mentioned in the paragraph. Be cautious and alert the choices that rephrase and repeat the topic. And avoid extreme choices.
Read the following lines and try to eliminate irrelevant choices:
Mma Ramotswe had a detective agency in Africa, at the foot of Kgale Hill. These were its assets: a tiny white van, two desks, two chairs, a telephone, and an old typewriter. Then, there was a teapot, in which. Mma Ramotswe—the only lady private detective in Botswana—brewed redbush tea. And three mugs—one for herself, one for her secretary, and one for the client. What else does a detective agency really need? Detective agencies rely on human intuition and intelligence, both of which Mma Ramotswe had in abundance.
(1) But there was also the view, which again would appear on inventory.
(2) No inventory would ever include those, of course.
(3) She had an intelligent secretary too.
(4) She was a good detective and a good woman.
(5) What she lacked in possessions was more than made up by a natural shrewdness.
Needless to say, the passage revolves around Mma Ramotswe and the minimal assets of her little detective agency. The first choice is off the mark as it takes the topic away from the main character, Mma Ramotswe or her possessions. The third choice fails to sum up the theme of the passage and digresses from it. The fourth one also fails to connect the possessions of her agency and her unique abilities. The second last sentence asks a question, and the last sentence tries to justify the case in a positive light, so the last choice does not fit. It’s only the first choice, which suitably wraps up the discussion raised by the question in the second-last line.
Recently, new types of English questions have become a common trend in all the Banking exams. The only solution to score well in English is to understand the pattern and practice as much as you can.
In this type, usually a paragraph of two/three line is given and we are asked to identify the statement that would complete the given paragraph.
The Indian Meterological Department (IMD) has come up with dismaying prediction that the southwest monsoon this year will be below normal. If the prognosis holds true, it may mar the prospects of redeeming the rabi crop output losses through bumper harvests in the later kharif season. India’s farm sector has certainly acquired a degree of resilience when it comes to monsoon – as reflected in the positive growth numbers in all the weak monsoon years since 2009. However, monsoon rainfall and its distribution still remains crucial.
(a) A poor monsoon and subsequent food inflation might well throw off the Reserve Bank of India’s schedule for rate cuts.
(b) The monsoon’s behaviour this year seems to bear out the notion that climate change is affecting the Indian monsoon and altering its rainfall calendar.
(c) They impact supplies and prices of most farm commodities, especially coarse cereals, pulses, oilseeds, vegetables, fruit and livestock products, as well as the rural sector demand for consumer goods.
(d) Nevertheless, the first stage monsoon forecast of the IMD should normally be taken with a pinch of salt, as the weather agency’s accuracy record on this count is none too inspiring.
To solve these types of questions following points must be kept in mind.
- First of all read the paragraph with full concentration and try to find out the gist of the paragraph.
- For e.g. in the above example we are talking about the monsoon and its impact on the farming sector.
- The paragraph is left at a particular thread of thought, try to identify that thought and then go to the given options.
- For e.g. in the above example the last line asks a question that why monsoon is still important? What will be its effects on the farming sector?
- According to the gist of the paragraph and the thought at which it was left, choose the correct option.
- For e.g. in the above example option (c) we come to know the impact of monsoon on the farming sector thus option (c) is the correct answer.
Or the other way the same type of question can be asked is:
Which of the following options follows the given sentence?
Cook, 56, said the impact of demonetization has not worked its way through yet and it is “still definitely having some overhang”.
(a) Describing India as a “great” market, Cook said Apple will make significant investments in the country going forward.
(b) He further added, “But in the longer term it’s a great move and I feel really good about how we are doing there”.
(c) He said the iPad and its laptop range Macs did very well in the Indian market.
(d) Apple’s CEO said the company established new all-time revenue records in most developed and emerging markets.
Which of the following options precedes the given sentence?
_________________________. Both, along with several other tools, are used by the RBI to infuse or suck out liquidity from the market.
(a) RBI has cut the repo rate by 1.50 percent.
(b) Repo rate is the rate at which the banks borrow from the RBI, while CRR refers to quantum of fund to be parked mandatorily with the RBI.
(c) It now remains to be seen how the banks react and when will they start reducing their lending rates.
(d) The rate cut could lead to a very good borrowing environment, particularly for retail customers.
- In these types of questions we need to find out that about which topic the sentence is talking about and then link up the option with the sentence.
- For e.g. in the above question we are talking about 2 RBI tools to deal with liquidity and in the options only (b) is talking about 2RBI tools i.e. Repo rate and CRR while in rest of the sentences we are just revolving around the impacts or the steps taken by the RBI.
Here we need to find the missing sentence.
After demonetization, people rushed to deposit the scrapped notes into their bank accounts.________________________________________________. In other words, depositors are unable to withdraw as much cash as they deposited. Also, the surge in deposits has not resulted in a corresponding increase in demand of loans.
(a) With restrictions on exchange of old notes and withdrawal of new ones, the banking system has been flushed with deposits.
(b) As a result, banks are forced to lower interest rates on deposit and lending.
(c) For the government, which is the largest borrower, the cost of new borrowings comes down.
(d) The government recalled Rs 500 and Rs 1000 notes on November 8.
Some questions for practice
Ques 1. Normally, falling oil prices would boost global growth. This time, though, matters are less clear cut. The big economic question is whether lower prices reflect weak demand or have been caused by a surge in the supply of crude. If weak demand is the culprit that is worrying: it suggests the oil price is a symptom of weakening growth. If the source of weakness is financial, then cheaper oil may not boost growth all that much: consumers may simply use the gains to pay down their debts. Indeed, in some countries, cheaper oil may even make matters worse by increasing the risk of deflation.
(a) An energy-induced drop in prices, though good for consumer purchasing power, risks reinforcing expectations of lower inflation overall.
(b) The IEA, an oil importers’ club, said it expects global demand to rise by just 700,000 barrels a day this year.
(c) On balance, energy consumers win and energy producers and exporting countries lose with falling oil prices.
(d) On the other hand, if plentiful supply is driving prices down, that is potentially better news: cheaper oil should eventually boost spending in the world’s biggest economies.
Ques 2. In the annals of computing, nothing has caused as much disappointment as putting ideas on paper. __________. However, with the coming of the inkjet printer it was soon possible to print really high quality images.
(a) For decades, printing computer files was a thankless task for users seeking to reproduce precisely what they saw on their screens.
(b) To start with, thermal inkjets were no match for the costlier laser printers that had just been introduced.
(c) For all its originality the idea behind the inkjet is far from new.
(d) The first inkjet printers were slow, messy machines, but they gradually got better and better.
(e) Designers of printers grew more ambitious and they started to want color, speed and low costs.
Ques 3. ____________________. And they are certainly right. Sunscreen protects your ski n from ultraviolet light rays. Too much ultraviolet is bad for your skin. If you spend a long time outside without any sunscreen on, you might get sunburn because of the ultraviolet rays.
(a) Ultraviolet light can get rid of bacteria in eggs and apple and make them safer to eat
(b) Your parents tell you to wear sunscreen when you’re outside in the summer
(c) When we are outdoors, we are exposed to pollens and dust, and other irritants
(d) However, they can also trigger asthma attacks, which are more serious
(e) It seems to be the safest way to make food safer before we buy it
Ques 4. Most Western industrialized nations have an individualistic orientation, which values independence and self-assertiveness. __________. They stress the interdependence of people within the community.
(a) There is no internal evidence to suggest this.
(b) Individuals in collectivist Asian cultures are even less likely to commit such errors.
(c) In contrast, many non-Western cultures have a more collectivist orientation.
(d) This is why Americans tend to use psychological traits to describe themselves.
(e) Actually, situational factors also play quite an important role.
Ques 5. A fax machine works by scanning each outgoing page, turning the image into a series of light and dark dots. This pattern is then translated into audio tones, and sent over regular phone lines. The receiving fax “hears” the tones, pieces the grid together, and prints the total number of dots._____________________________________.
(a) He invented a machine capable of receiving signals from a telegraph wire
(b) The idea of fax machines has been around for a long time
(c) They were an easy way to send documents to any phone number
(d) The resulting document is a black and white copy of the original page
(e) Then he finally managed to translate these symbols into images on paper
Practice Sets For Paragraph Completion
Direction (1-5): In each question a sentence is given followed by a blank. Each blank is followed by three options and you have determine which option can be used in place of blank to give a meaningful sentence and mark it as your answer.
- The NSP aims to maintain a malaria-free status for areas where transmission has been interrupted. It seeks ___________________
I. to achieve universal case detection and treatment services
II. to ensure 100% diagnosis of all suspected cases,
III. Effective indoor residual spray.
A) Only I
B) Only II
C) Only III
D) Both I & II
E) All I, II, III
- The shared history of India and Australia, coupled with the shared democratic values and _________________
I. similar outlooks on the strategic changes taking place in the Indo-Pacific region and globally.
II. to ensure the Indo-Pacific region — the most dynamic in the world — remain peaceful and increasingly prosperous.
III. to move beyond their comfort zone and learn how to work with each other in new and different ways.
A) Only I
B) Only II
C) Only III
D) All I, II, III
E) None of these
- An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various financial-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as ______________________
I. to the creation of capital
II. raising financial capital by underwriting
III. acting as the client’s agent in the issuance of securities.
A) Only II
B) Only III
C) Both II & III
D) Only I
E) None of These
- Literature is used to refer to all written accounts, though contemporary definitions extend the term to include ________________
I. writing that is considered to be an art form
II. any single writing deemed to have artistic or intellectual value
III. developments in print technology
A) Only I
B) Both II & III
C) Both I & II
D) Only III
E) Only II
- By maintaining a high charge for the morning-after pill, Boots has made the drug out of reach ___________________
I. for poorer women in society, who are often more vulnerable
II. women with money in the bank,
III. from women to make sensible and informed choices about their sexual health
A) Only I
B) Both I & II
C) Only II
D) Only III
E) Both II & III
- Food wastage is an extremely critical issue of national importance. To address the problem of food loss and waste globally, the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 12.3 aims ____________
I. to halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels
II. to check the lack of infrastructure for short-term storage.
III. to reduce food losses along production and supply chains
A) Both I & II
B) All I, II, III
C) Only I
D) Only III
E) Both I & III
- Antarctica is a climate stabilising factor and the calving of the ice shelf now has _______________
I. to protect and conserve the Antarctica to avoid large scale disasters the world can face.
II. to human-induced climate change was available in this case
III. opened the path to an even larger flow of ice into the oceans
A) Only I
B) Only II
C) Only III
D) All of the Above
E) None of these.
- It is almost 70 years since independence. As an institution, Parliament is central ________
I. to the idea of democracy and was assigned a pivotal role in our Constitution
II. to legislation—laws of the land—by which people govern themselves
III. to people at election time
A) Only I
B) Only III
C) All of these
D) Both I & II
E) None of these
- The 21st edition of exercise “Malabar” was held in the Bay of Bengal in July 2017. Malabar is/was _______________________
I. an annual military exercise between the navies of India and Japan
II. began in 1992 as a bilateral exercise between India and the U.S.
III. permanently expanded into a trilateral format with the inclusion of Japan in 2015.
A) Only I
B) Both I & II
C) Both I & III
D) None of These
E) All I, II, III
- The internal security situation of our country has not shown any marked improvement over what it inherited from the earlier government. The issues like: _____________________
I. Jammu and Kashmir continues to be in the news for wrong reasons with ceasefire violations by the Pakistan army
II. The Islamic State in a video has threatened to wage jihad against India
III. communal riots in Gujarat and Muzaffarnagar
A) Only I
B) Only II
C) Only III
D) All of these
E) None of these
Directions: From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
- When it comes to vehicular pollution, there is a need to understand why Delhi has an ever-growing motorised vehicle population. Efficient mobility is essential for a smooth functioning city. A primary cause for the explosion of private cars in the city is the____________________________________.
A) Delhi’s vehicular traffic, particularly private vehicles, is not the prime culprit.
B) higher number of trips by autos and taxis and a larger presence of two-wheelers.
C) absence of a properly functioning, predictable, integrated public transport system with efficient last-mile connectivity.
D) a feeder system integrating the different forms of public transport, synchronised road management system and improved pedestrian facilities.
E) High fines, a hyper-vigilant police force and the short period of enforcement.
- Smiling a lot is a valued trait: People who often smile sincerely radiate likeability, connect easily with others and are appreciated more. By smiling, you make a positive impression that will assist in making contacts and reaching your goals_________________________________________
A) but If you make it second nature to smile easily in different situations, it won’t take that much effort to smile disarmingly when the tension rises somewhat.
B) And many managers have possibly lost the deal of their dreams, because they couldn’t smile spontaneously.
C) That’s why we perhaps do not always dare to smile.
D) Moreover, smiling makes you feel good. However, not all smiles are created equal, and it is not a good idea to smile in every situation.
E) None of these.
- Some people shy away from travelling alone, a few embrace it. So, what is it that makes it an attractive option? What are the advantages of going it alone? Well first things first, travelling solo can be very liberating. The itinerary you set and all the decisions you make are yours and yours alone_______________________________________________.
A) You don’t need to worry about any other person or group.
B) but that is just one of many problems you will have to solve yourself, along with making your own arrangements, and setting your own goals.
C) Actually, you can be completely selfish.
D) The most important factor to consider in your decision to make a trip alone is your own sense of independence.
E) None of these.
- The rules as regards to applying for jobs have been subject to enormous changes lately, and if you haven’t been job hunting for a while, it can come as a bit of a shock: In the past, people preferred a hand-written application letter, but it is becoming more and more common these days to find and apply for a vacancy via the internet__________________________________________________.
A) Members of the interview committee will ask you questions, but your answers won’t only be oral.
B) After all, before a word has even been spoken, your body language will have already given people their first impression of you.
C) More and more often it is enough to email your C.V., or simply place your C.V. on the web, and because of this, the application procedure often goes more quickly.
D) It might be a cliché to talk about arriving on time for a job interview, but I think it is still important enough to bring it to your attention.
E) None of these.
- Mosquitoes feed on the blood of various kinds of hosts, mainly vertebrates, mainly mammals. However, some mosquitoes also attack invertebrates, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and even some kinds of fish. Although the loss of blood is seldom of any importance to the victim____________________________________________________.
A) The saliva of the mosquito often causes a nasty irritation that we call a bite.
B) In their defence, mosquitoes don’t really know what they are doing.
C) Many species of mosquitoes act as vectors of diseases.
D) so following our post on the Zika virus we decided to show this infographic, which reveals some of the diseases that the mosquito carries.
E) None of these.
- India’s drive to encourage the use of efficient LED light bulbs has till now been restricted, for the most part, to households. The government leveraged its buying power to make LEDs available at discounted prices. Lighting takes up about 15 per cent of the total power consumption._____________________.
A) Much of India’s infrastructure is yet to be built.
B) Such a business model would also align with broader goals of improving energy efficiency.
C) A cost-effective pathway for this growing segment to transition to LEDs makes smart business and economic sense.
D) That can be reduced to about 2 per cent, if LEDs are adopted across the board.
E) None of these.
- The State Bank of India’s (SBI) move to reintroduce penalty on depositors who do not maintain a minimum balance in savings account is short-sighted. This is so for three reasons. One, the justification offered, of having to recoup the cost on no-frills Jan Dhan accounts, is less than convincing. Two,_______________________________________.
A) If penal charges force customers to do a hard commercial comparison between PSBs and private banks.
B) if public sector banks (PSBs) are seen to be mercenary in their treatment of customers, depositors might well migrate to private banks that offer superior returns, if not service, and deprive PSBs of their huge cushion of current and saving accounts (Casa).
C) Of the 27.84 crore Jan Dhan accounts opened so far, holding Rs 64,228 crore, PSBs account for about four-fifths of the number of accounts and of the deposits.
D) With increasing proportions of the government’s subsidy expenditure being transferred to these accounts as cash, banks stand to enjoy a float of a few lakh crore.
E) None of these.
- The National Green Tribunal (NGT) on Friday banned open defecation and dumping of waste on the floodplains of the Yamuna river and __________________________________.
A) The tribunal was informed that a total of 14 STPs are to be constructed to clean wastewater.
B) to oversee the execution of work pertaining to the cleaning of the river .
C) The green panel noted that almost 67% of the pollution reaching the Yamuna would be treated by the two sewage treatment plants.
D) announced an environment compensation of Rs. 5,000 for those violating the diktat.
E) None of these.
- Google has just put a lid on a phishing scheme that drew victims claiming to be the search giant’s Docs platform. The victims received a mail_________________________-.
A) saying a contact had shared a Google Doc, and when they opened the link, they were taken to a Google Docs page where a service called ‘Google Docs’ requested access to their email login.
B) Spear phishing is an email that appears to be from an individual or a business familiar to you. Spear phishers thrive on familiarity.
C) In a lengthy blog post, Snapchat apologised to its employees and assured them that the servers were not breached.
D) an SMS from ‘Coca Cola Foundation’ might announce that you have won a million in the lottery.
E) None of these.
- The government has set up 18 sectoral groups, comprising senior members from the Centre and the States, ________________________________________.
A) who, in turn, will try to guide and help them in resolving the same.”
B) highlighting specific issues for the smooth transition of the respective sector to the GST regime,
C) to ensure the smooth rollout of the Goods and Services Tax, it announced on Friday.
D) concerned industry groups/associations or even individual industry representative(s) may approach the respective sectoral group officers with their problems
E) None of these.
Direction: In each of the following questions a short passage is given with one of the lines in the passage missing and represented by a blank. Select the best out of the five answer choices given, to make the passage complete and coherent.
- It is important for HR and talent management professionals to understand the distinction between happy, satisfied employees and engaged employees. Engaged employees are happy, satisfied employees, but not all happy, satisfied employees are engaged employees (………………………………………………….). Similarly, satisfied employees are happy to show up to work each day and do their work, but will be equally happy to take their satisfaction elsewhere for a salary increase.A) The renewed interest in improving employee engagement in organizations has originated from actions executives took during the recession.
B) Engaged employees speak positively about their organizations to their co-workers, potential employees, and customers.
C) Happy employees, for example, may gladly show up for work on most days, but that happiness does not necessarily translate into productivity and profitability
D) Not all satisfied, emotionally invested professionals are engaged at the same level in an organization.
E) HR and talent management professionals must understand these various engagement levels before embarking on an employee engagement initiative because action steps to improve engagement need to be customized based on where employees fall on the scale.
- (…………………………………………………………….). As the economy continues to recover and talent remains the last true competitive advantage, business leaders are right to be concerned about employee engagement. There is a real fear that the 70 percent disengaged workers will leave, taking their knowledge and talents to competitors, or worse, stay with the organization physically, but not mentally. The timing could not be more crucial for HR and talent managers to prioritize engagement as a strategic initiative.A) Engaged employees feel emotionally connected to the organization, understand what it takes to help the organization succeed, and drive for that result.
B) To achieve stronger bottom line results, it is essential that HR and talent leaders partner with business leaders to create and communicate a culture of engagement.
C) Increasing an organization’s employee engagement and commitment can dramatically impact and fuel operational excellence, innovation, and the ability to compete.
D) HR and talent management professionals should ensure communication plans are built into all employee engagement initiatives.
E) When implemented correctly, employee engagement initiatives can improve employee morale, create a more positive corporate culture, and significantly impact the bottom line.
- (……………………………………………….). We are managing numerous fluctuating priorities, working with increased expectations, balancing competing demands for our personal and professional goals, and handling ongoing conflict and ambiguity in complex environments. Consulting firm AON Hewitt estimates that 35 percent of U.S. employers in 2013 offered stress-reduction programs to their employees, and that estimate is expected to grow (AON Hewitt, 2013). HR and talent management professionals are increasingly looking for ways to reduce employee stress, and many employers—like Google, Aetna, Target, and General Mills, to name a few—have found that introducing mindfulness into their workplace not only lowers employee stress, but improves focus, clarity of thinking, decision-making, emotional intelligence, and more.A) Mindfulness has roots that go back 2,500 years and uses an anchor—often breathing—to center attention and to bring awareness to the present moment
B) Physiological or biological stress is an organism’s response to a stressor such as an environmental condition
C) One child was said to have lost all their eyelashes due to stress, while others worried about academic failure and some had to be comforted.
D) Psychologist Ela Amarie of the Switzerland-based consultancy Mindful Brain observes that there are three characteristics of mindfulness; intention, attention, and attitude.
E) In today’s work world, we face multiple stress inducing demands and pressures as well as constant connectivity through smart phones, social media, and tablet computers
- Thought leaders are increasingly calling today’s turbulent business world a “VUCA” environment—one that is volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous.(………………………………………….). Organizations that lack resilience, that ability to bounce back after setbacks, are often stressful places to work, a situation in which far too many employers and employees are well versed.A) But if you’re looking to build resilient teams or entire organizations, it’s the resilience of all those relationships that may matter even more.
B) But all isn’t lost; it simply means shifting our focus from developing resilient leaders toward developing collectively resilient groups.
C) To succeed in this environment, organizations must be more adaptive and agile than ever before—they must be resilient
D) Keep piling on ever bigger sales targets or changing mandates from on high, and eventually, even the most resilient individual is likely to break down.
E) Stress lowers employee performance, productivity, morale, and strains workplace relationships.
- The workplace is often strained, stressful, and overwhelming.(…………………………………………..). As human beings, that is simply an impossibility; employees cannot leave their emotions and personalities at home. By building work communities that are safe and secure, yet also encouraging and stimulating, HR and talent management professionals can also create teams that are more productive, satisfied, and high-performing.A) Employees have been taught to check their feelings at the door to focus on their work—to “compart-mentalize” their personal and professional selves
B) Developing resilient leaders will help them better grasp and support the benefits of building resilience at all organizational levels.
C) Each time a community meets—whether it is a team, a smaller working group or an entire division— the community leader should open with a few simple questions.
D) Encourage employees to keep a running list of everything that is on their minds so they can get it off their minds.
E) Deeply focused, uninterrupted reading is an excellent way to train and sustain the brain’s capacity for absorbed attention.
- Providing street and public lighting can account for up to 38% of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in some cities. New energy-efficient technologies and design can cut street lighting costs dramatically (up to 60%) and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by the same amount. (…………………………………………) The savings also allow municipalities to expand street lighting coverage to additional areas that include low-income and other underserved areas.A) Providing street and public lighting is one of the most expensive responsibilities of a municipality.
B) These savings can reduce the need for new generating plants and redeploy scarce capital to delivering energy access to populations in remote areas.
C) The project actually has produced 9.7 million kWh, 10 percent more electricity than anticipated, for a total utility savings of about $1.2 million
D) Municipalities are often not willing or able to implement LED retrofits because a significant portion of the generated electricity savings will not be realized through reduced operating costs
E) The limited knowledge of LEDs and capacity to retrofit, operate, and maintain LEDs in most municipalities create an unwillingness to retrofit city streetlights.
- (……………………………………………………………………….…). To counter this new normal, organizations need employees and leaders who are agile, adaptable, and flexible. In a word, resilient. HR and talent management professionals can help by creating resilient organizational cultures. This will require a fundamental shift in thinking, away from squeezing the most productivity from employees and towards enabling employees to take care of their physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual needs, thereby building resilience.A) A key to a resilient organizational culture is empowerment, which can come in many forms.
B) Employees need to be given the freedom to take regular renewal breaks throughout the day to help rejuvenate, metabolize, and embed learning.
C) Today, “business as usual” means rapid change, an influx of new technologies, economic turbulence, uncertainty, and ambiguity.
D) The more employees move into “fight or flight” mode, the more reactive and impulsive they become, and the less reflective and responsive.
E) It is important to establish safe and secure communities and acknowledge, according to Schwartz, that the “struggle to feel valued is one of the most insidious and least acknowledged issues in organizations.”
- (…………………………………………………………). Based on the 2010 GDP statistics published by both the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, the traditional BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) countries are now the seventh, eleventh, ninth, and second largest economies in the world, respectively, while the newest member of the BRICS (South Africa), is among the top thirty economies in the world. Moreover, companies based in emerging economies and those expanding into them in search of growth opportunities are experimenting with new business models even as they build on and extend traditional approaches to strategy and management. At a minimum, emerging markets will complement traditional “developed” markets in strategic importance in the foreseeable future.A) Interest on management research on the emerging economies also is increasing by leaps and bounds.
B) One way of categorizing the works in this virtual issue reflects the conceptual lenses and empirical focus.
C) The twenty-first century is the century of the emerging economies, both in market growth and, just as importantly, in changes to business strategy
D) Guo and Miller (2010) study the dynamic of guanxi networks and their impact on business organization, helping to develop a new conceptual lens for understanding social structure in different institutional contexts and stages of entrepreneurial formation
E) We need more “green” type research when studying management phenomena in novel contexts, especially emerging economies.
- (………………………………………………………………..). Not only has it been shown to assist language acquisition in learning impaired children, enhance students’ academic performance in exams and alleviate anxiety and depression but its mere presence improves cognitive functioning. Several studies reveal increases in levels of attention, memory, mental arithmetic and learning. A popular explanation for this improvement in cognitive performance proposes that if the music is liked then this increases arousal which in turn increases performance.A) Listening to music is a well-loved past time for many people but recent research suggests that it provides both health and psychological beneﬁts as well
B) Given that music can generally be characterisedby this feature , it maybe predicted that background music, instead of increasing performance , would actually reduce performance.
C) The arousal and mood hypothesis proposes that listening to a liked piece of music is just one example of a stimulus that can increase a participant’s arousal and mood.
D) Research into music education continues to demonstrate educational/cognitive and social skill benefits for children who make music.
E) You might use a streaming music service while you’re doing chores around the house or studying, but how would you feel if your surgeon was rocking out in the operating room during a procedure?
- Cross-cultural psychology has demonstrated important links between cultural context and individual behavioural development. (………………………………………) The long-term psychological consequences of this process of acculturation are highly variable, depending on social and personal variables that reside in the society of origin, the society of settlement and phenomena that both exist prior to, and arise during, the course of acculturation.A) This is distinct from acculturation, which would involve the surrender of the immigrants’ traditions, heritage and identity into the American melting pot.
B) Given this relationship, cross-cultural research has increasingly investigated what happens to individuals who have developed in one cultural context when they attempt to re-establish their lives in another one.
C) One of the most important things to consider when doing business internationally is mastering the art of cross-cultural communication.
D) Diversity in the workplace means leaders need to be ready to build strong teams with cross-cultural members from different backgrounds.
E) Through our world-class line-up we strive to inspire and create lasting opportunities for collaboration; cross cultural exchanges; economic opportunities and skills development.