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The origin of statistics can be traced back to the primitive man, who put notches on trees to keep an account of his belongings. During 5000 BCE, kings used to carry out census of populations and resources of the state. Kings of olden days made their crucial decisions on wars, based on statistics of infantry, and elephantary units of their own and that of their enemies. Later it enhanced its scope in their kingdoms’ tax management and administrative domains. Thus, the word ‘Statistics’ has its root either to Latin word ‘Status’ or Italian word ‘Statista’ or German word ‘Statistik’ each of which means a ‘political state’. The word ‘Statistics’ was primarily associated with the presentation of facts and figures pertaining to demographic, social and political situations prevailing in a state/government. Its evolution over time formed the basis for most of the science and art disciplines. Statistics is used in the developmental phases of both theoretical and applied areas, encompassing the field of Industry, Agriculture, Medicine, Sports and Business analytics.
* Derived from Latin statisticum collegium (“council of state”)
- Italian word statista (“statesman” or “politician”)
- German book Statistik, published in 1749, described the analysis of demographic and economic data about the state (political arithmetic in English)
- Was broadened in 1800s to include the collection, summary, and analysis of data of any type; also was conjoined with probability for the purpose of statistical inference.
DEFINITION AND USES OF STATISTICS
One of the ways to appreciate what is being studied is to know its origin and how it developed and helped mankind. Statistics as a field of knowledge proved so much in the world as a very powerful tool in almost all fields of work. It can be found in the field of sciences, in business and economics, in education, politics, psychology and in research.
In social sciences, particularly in the field of education and psychology, statistics is an indespensable tool.
In education, the school administration and staff, the faculty and the students use statistics as a tool in performance of their respective functions and responsabilities.
In psychology, statistical methods are used to analyze and interpret data on intelligence test scores, aptitude tests, personality test ratings, entrance examinations. etc. for the better understanding of the individual tested, and for better administration and management.
In government, statistics provides the various government agencies organized and systematic records of data needed in the formulation of national policies for the betterment of the nations’ well being.
In research, many scientific investigations produce large quantities of raw data that are overwhelming and difficult to interpret hence, statistical tool are employed.
Statistical methods have been used to record and predict such things as:
1)birth and death rates
2)employment and inflation rates
4)other economic and social trends